IMPROVEST Consumer Resource Center


  1. Gilbert A, Wysocki C. The Smell Survey. National Geographic. 1987;172:4,514-525.
  2. Weiler U, Fischer K, Kemmer H, Dobrowolski A, Claus R. Influence of androstenone sensitivity on consumer reactions to boar meat in Proceedings. EAAP, 1997;147-151.
  3. FDA Freedom of Information Summary. IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor – diphtheria toxoid conjugate). NADA 141-322.
  4. MacKinnon J, Pearce M. IMPROVAC (Pfizer Animal Health): An immunological product for the control of boar taint in male pigs. 11. Practical application in pig production and potential production benefits. The Pig Journal 2007;59:68-90.
  5. Allison J, Pearce M, Brock F, Crane J. A comparison of mortality (animal withdrawal) rates in male fattening pigs reared using either physical castration or vaccination with IMPROVAC as the method to reduce boar taint in Proceedings. 21st IPVS Congress 2010; 1139.
  6. Dunshea F, Colantoni C, Howard K, McCauley I, et al. Vaccination of boars with a GnRF vaccine (IMPROVAC) eliminates boar taint and increases growth performance. J Am Sci 2001;79:2524-2535.
  7. Rydhmer L, Lundström K, Andersson K. Immunocastration reduces aggressive and sexual behaviour in male pigs. Animal 2010;1-8. doi:10.1017/S175173111000011x.
  8. Allison J, McKeith F, Souza, et al. Impact of using vaccination with IMPROVAC rather than physical
    castration on the carcass characteristics of finishing male pigs, in Proceedings. 55th ICoMST 2009,
  9. The International EPD System. IMPROVAC. Available at: Accessed March 9, 2011.
  10. European Public Assessment Report, p. 20. Available at: Accessed March 21, 2011.
  11. Quick Facts: The Pork Industry at a Glance. Des Moines, IA: National Pork Board, 2009:61.
  12. Data from EPA Greenhouse Gas Report, 2007 Available at: downloads09/Agriculture.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2011.
  13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Emission Facts: Average Annual Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks. Available at: Accessed on April 6, 2011.