The Danger of the Evolving PCV2 virus
There are four known PCV2 genotypes present in U.S. swine herds: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2d and occasionally PCV2e, with prevalence shifting in the past several years to PCV2b1 and now PCV2d.2 PCV2d was originally referred to as mutant PCV2b,3 and sequence analysis confirms that it is more similar to PCV2b than to PCV2a.4 Until now, all commercial PCV2 vaccines contained a single PCV2 genotype, meaning you could have less coverage against more prevalent or evolving strains in circulation.5-8
- PCV2 has the highest mutation rate reported for a single-stranded DNA virus.9
- The genetic gap between PCV2 vaccines and viruses is increasing.10,11
- PCV2 is one of the most economically important diseases in the swine industry.12
A dangerous combination: M. hyo and PCV2
When clinical pneumonia is decreasing herd productivity, you might start looking for a single culprit, such as PCV2 or M. hyo. But complex respiratory challenges are rarely caused by just one pathogen.
Viral and bacterial infectious agents can open the door for one another when a pig’s immune system is compromised. An M. hyo infection can last 15 to 28 weeks after initial exposure.13-16
Fostera® Gold PCV MH can help you protect your operation from PCV2 and M. hyo.Broadest PCV2 antigenic protection
1 Beach NM, Meng XJ. Efficacy and future prospects of commercially available and experimental vaccines against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Virus Res. 2012;164(1-2):33-42.
2 Xiao CT, Harmon KM, Halbur PG, Opriessnig T. PCV2d-2 is the predominant type of PCV2 DNA in pig samples collected in the U.S. during 2014-2016. Vet Microbiol. 2016;197:72-77.
3 Opriessnig T, Gerber PF, Xiao CT, Mogler M, Halbur PG. A commercial vaccine based on PCV2a and an experimental vaccine based on a variant mPCV2b are both effective in protecting pigs against challenge with a 2013 U.S. variant mPCV2b strain. Vaccine. 2014;32(2):230-237.
4 Bao F, Mi S, Luo Q, et al. Retrospective study of porcine circovirus type 2 infection reveals a novel genotype PCV2F. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017;00:1-9.
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7 Saha D, Lefebvre DJ, Ooms K, et al. Single amino acid mutations in the capsid switch the neutralization phenotype of porcine circovirus 2. J Gen Virol. 2012;93(Pt 7):1548-1555.
8 Cheung AK, Lager KM, Kohutyuk OI, et al. Detection of two porcine circovirus type 2 genotypic groups in United States swine herds. Arch Virol. 2007;152(5):1035-1044.
9 Firth C, Charleston MA, Duffy S, Shapiro B, Holmes EC. Insights into the evolutionary history of an emerging livestock pathogen: porcine circovirus 2. J Virol. 2009;83(24):12813-12821.
10 Olvera A, Cortey M, Segalés J. Molecular evolution of porcine circovirus type 2 genomes: phylogeny and clonality. Virology. 2007;357(2):175-185.
11 Gerber PF, Johnson J, Shen H, et al. Association of concurrent porcine circovirus (PCV) 2a and 2b infection with PCV associated disease in vaccinated pigs. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95(2):775-781.
12 Gillespie J, Opriessnig T, Meng XJ, et al. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Porcine Circovirus-Associated Disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23(6):1151-1163.
13 Fano E, Pijoan C, Dee S. Dynamics and persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs. Can J Vet Res. 2005;69(3):223-228.
14 Pieters M, Pijoan C, Fano E, Dee S. An assessment of the duration of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in an experimentally infected population of pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2009;134(3-4):261-266.
15 Mattsson JG, Bergström K, Wallgren P, Johansson KE. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in nose swabs from pigs by in vitro amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33(4):893-897.
16 Thacker EL, Halbur PG, Ross RF, Thanawongnuwech R, Thacker BJ. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae potentiation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced pneumonia. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37(3):620-627
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